Luftwaffe Signals Intelligence and Jamming Service. (Der Funkaufklärungs Dienst).

 

 

       
         
 

 
         
 

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  The Funk Horch Dienst.  
         
  Prior to the outbreak of WW II a signals intelligence collection organization had been established in Germany.  Each Lft. had thus a subordinate organization, which for reasons of deception and concealment had units with names related to the weather service.  In each Lft. area there was a Wetterfunkempfangs-Leitstelle (W-Leit) with a number of subordinate operations-centers called Wetterfunkempfangs Stellen (W-Stellen).  The actual collection was done by Wetterforschungs Stellen (Wo-Stellen).
The manning in the Lft. area was provided by the III Battalion of a Ln.-Rgt, the W- and Wo-Stellen were manned by 9 and 10. Kp of that Battalion.
 
     
   
  Drawing of a W-Stelle.  
     
  Right after the occupation of France the Reichpost-Zentralamtes (RPZ) established a number of FuMB sites on The Channel Coast. The sites were equipped with receivers, which covered the frequencies from 75 - 300 Mhz.  The task of this organization was to follow the development of radar in the UK, so it was more strategic and operational rather than tactical in nature.  In the year up to 1942 the number of sites expanded, and the initial makeshift organization subordinated to Lft.2. was absorbed in Ln-Rgt.3 ("CONDOR").  Additionally Stelle in Deauville and Wissant monitored the H/F net of Fighter Command and the Pip-Squak transmissions during the BoB.  This enabled the Luftwaffe to located the position of RAF fighter formations and give due warning to the attacking Luftwaffe formations and their fighter escorts.  
     
   
  A H/F or VHF D/F piece of equipment in Wissant.  
     
  Subordinate to Lft.3. the following units have been identified:
W-Leit Stelle 3 manned by Stab III/Ln.Funkhorch-Regiment West located in Noisy by Beaumont with accommodation in a castle in Chambley.
W-3 in La Celle-St. Cloud and W-25 in the Brest area.
 
  Central direction was conducted the by the Funkleitstand des ObdL organized in 7/Ln-Rgt. ObdL.  Over time the function of the organization became of a more operational nature, tasked with collection against the allied air forces in order to establish AOBs and operating patterns.  This organization was thus able to detect and follow the Bomber Stream based on it's emissions, but this information was initially not passed on in near real time to the JDs, much to the dismay of the commanders.  Some of the first equipment employed was given the covername Windmess Stelle (WIM) and the designation FuMB a - h.  It is interesting that some of this equipment was operational in Norway in 1945.  
     
  After much searching  a generous friend was able to help unravel the organization of the Funk Horch Dienst 1940 - 1944, which preceded the Funkaufklärungs Dienst.  Please see below.  
     
  Map of the location of WIM-Stelle1939 - MAY 1940.  
     
   Organization of the Funk Horch Dienst 1940 - 1944.  
  Maps of the location of Funk Horch Stelle MAY 1940 - mid 1944.  
     
   

   
   

A WIM receiver.

   
         
   

October 1944 - May 1945

   
         
      As part of an all encompassing re-organization of the Flugmeldedienst, Ln-Rgt. Reich was established in OCT 1944 as depicted.  This organization was responsible for intercept of electronic emissions in all frequency bands, with all modulations and signal formats, exploitation and jamming.  
         
 

Ln.-Rgt. Reich

 
     
 

Funkaufklärungsdienst, organization as of 1 JAN 1945.

 
  Table of administrative organization (overview).  
     
  Table of administrative organization (detailed).  
     
  Table of operational and tactical organisation.  
 

Funkaufklärungs Dienst codewords and plotting symbols.

 
     
  Gef.Std. ZAF.  
     
  Gef.Std. Meldekopf 1/Korfu West.  
     
 

For an interesting video describing some of the functions please see:  HIGH FREQUENCY AS A WEAPON National Archives and Records Administration Free Download & Streaming Internet Archive Hochfrequenz Kriegsführung.  Please note that some of the reports, I have been working from, were not declassified from TOP SECRET by the NSA until JAN 2009, since some of the procedures and techniques used by the Germans are valid to this very day.

 
     
  Written order related to the film  
     
 

Functional areas.

 
     
   The following functional areas were performed by this service:  
     
 

   Funk-Horchdienst. 

 
     
 

Funkmess-Beobachtungs Dienst.

 
     
 

   Funk-Stördienst or Funkmess-Stördienst.

 
         
    List of Stor Stelle up till early 1945.    
     
  For in depth NSA reports on all three functions please see:  NARA-CP RG 457 HCC Boxes 974-976 SEABOURNE REPORT: THE SIGNAL INTELLIGENCE SERVICE OF THE GERMAN LUFTWAFFE (VOL I THRU VOL XIII):
http://www.ticomarchive.com/the-targets/chi-stelle-air-force/related-reports
.
 
         
    Jamming of GEE.    
    Jamming of Oboe.    
         
    Jamming of H2S.    
         
         
  When manning a Stelle these units were employed in the smallest organizational entity : a Trup.  Elements - maybe the entire Kp. - from the following units have been identified in Denmark.  This list is definitely not all exhaustive.  In the source I'm working from, only the name of the Stelle is mentioned in most cases:  
         
    Unit Present Location    
   
13/Funk.Aufkl.Rgt.(Mot) 351
Periodically. In the sites on the map next page.    
    14/Funk.Aufkl.Rgt.(Mot) 351 Periodically. In the sites on the map next page.    
   
2/Funk.Aufkl.Abt. 356
End of war Hjardemål.    
   
2/Funk.Aufkl.Abt. 356
End of war Vester Vandet    
   
3/Funk.Aufkl.Abt.(Mot) 357
End of war. Øster Uttrup.    
         
 

 

 
         
 

 
         
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